Recent Papers

Ion-Beam Neutralization

Introduction- As described in Technical Note KRI-01, an Ion-Beam from a broad-beam industrial source must be neutralized. This is done by emitting electrons from a neutralizer. A hot-filament, plasma-bridge, or hollow-cathode type of neutralizer may be used. The ion source in Fig. 1 could be either gridded or gridless. For a gridless source, the neutralizer is ...

Modular Linear Ion Source

麦克betAbstract- The modular linear ion source described herein uses cylindrical end-Hall modules in a linear array. The modules are operated in parallel so that there is a single gas flow to the ion source, a single discharge power supply, and a single hollow-cathode electron source, similar to a non-modular design. The spacing between the modules can ...

Low Energy Ion Beam Etching

麦克betAbstract-  Etch-rate profiles have been obtained for copper, tantalum, stainless steel and quartz using a commercial end-Hall ion source. These profiles can be used to predict uniformity and etch rates in practical etching configurations. Compared to a gridded ion source, the lower ion energy of an end-Hall ion source is offset in etching rate by ...

Ruthenium Oxide Films Prepared by Reactive Biased Target Sputtering

Background- RuO2 (Ruthenium Oxide) in both crystalline and amorphous forms is of crucial importance for theoretical as well as practical purposes, due to the unique combination of characteristics, such as metallic conductivity, high chemical and thermal stability, catalytic activities, and high work function. Due to such properties, RuO2 finds great promise in various applications, for example, ...

A novel approach to fabricate extreme ultraviolet mask blanks based on BTD technique

Abstract–  Extensive optimization on the fabrication of Mo/Si multilayer system is carried out at 4Wave using bias target deposition technology. The process is being optimized including parameters such as uniformity, deposition parameters, reproducibility and layer composition. Reflectivity with values of around 69% are routinely achieved at normal incidence, demonstrating the capabilities of deposition process. Some ...

Optimization of Ion Beam Etch Sidewall Angle in Mo and Cr Films

麦克betAbstract– We studied the effect of performing a two-angle Ion Beam etch process in shaping the sidewall profiles of patterned Mo and Cr films. Cross-sectional SEM is used to study both the sidewall angle and the effects of redeposition on the sidewall shape. By etching first at 45° and then 5°, favorable sidewall profiles for ...

Biased Target Ion Beam Deposition of Spin-Valves

麦克betAbstract– A further reduction of defect concentration in spin-valve multilayers is difficult in today’s growth processes. Multilayers with better layer thickness uniformity, lower contamination and reduced interfacial roughness and interlayer mixing can have significantly improved properties. Atomistic simulations revealed that a modulation of the energy of depositing atoms during deposition of each material layer or ...

Biased Target Ion Beam Deposition of GMR Multiayers

麦克betAbstract–  The low temperature reactive sputter deposition of amorphous rare earth substituted Bismuth Iron Garnet (BiDy)3 (FeAl)5 O12 using four simultaneous targets via a biased target deposition (BTD) system is reported for the first time. This method provides control over the material composition in a predictable way by controlling the individual target bias. The resultant ...